The Anatomy of A Film Production

Every film production consists of what we’ll call a “required workflow:” necessary elements and/or steps for planning and executing productions.

For those unfamiliar, this workflow, somewhat intuitively, can be broken down into 4 phases: development, pre-production, production, and post-production.

Some of the details include:

  • Development
    • Budget
    • Casting
    • Storyboard
    • Treatment
    • Script
  • Pre-production
    • Scheduling
    • Gear
    • Location
    • Permit & Insurance
    • Props & Set
    • Camera
    • Costume & Make-up
    • Shotlisting
    • Floorplan
    • Craft Services
    • Crew selection
  • Production
    • Call Sheets
  • Post-production
    • Editing
    • Color
    • Exports

Why do we care?

For one thing, streamlining each and all of these elements takes a lot of planning and coordination. Throughout the history of filmmaking, producers have owned this responsibility and delegated accordingly.

But now, the demands for new and original content (for and by studios, streaming services, mobile apps, social media – you name it) is challenging the producers’ capacity to execute in a timely manner on all of the different projects she’s involved in.

What infrastructure helps streamline and ease the planning and execution of productions today?

In truth, Hollywood is a ways away from having a consolidated, one-stop-shop for all things related to executing a film production – or productions at scale.

But the beginning of a new business of entertainment has dawned.

At SHOgigs, we’ve begun this journey by addressing the producers’ pain point of crewing up. Finding crew can be a time-consuming and therefore costly aspect of production. Thus we make it easier for producers and crew find each other so that everyone can get to work.

A revolution in the way entertainment manages their business is well underway. (Cue Netflix.) For the industry to sustain its growth and scalability, a fresh approach to the business of entertainment will evolve. The intersection of technology and production will define the entertainment industry’s trajectory.

Content: Creation Versus Curation

Content consumes us, each day and everyday. Our eyes lock focus on screens, whether they be our mobile devices, laptop computers or high-def TVs. We live in this inevitable reality that drives our engagement with others, virtually and otherwise.

While we are consumers of such content, we are also producers.

Taking it one step further, we are not only content creators, but content curators as well. While we share our own content in the form of photos, videos, Boomerangs, blog entries, comments, likes etc., we also have the means to curate how we share this information.

Let’s consider Netflix, for example. Not only has Netflix invested billions of dollars in producing original content, it’s algorithm is inherently based on behavioral preferences so that users only see what they will (theoretically) enjoy.

Therefore, my Netflix homepage looks different than your Netflix homepage. Even if it’s determined we would both like the same movie, I may see a different still than you because of our behavioral profiles. Thus, Netflix is not only a content creator, but a content curator as well.

As are you and I – at least we have the power to be. It boils down to a matter of what, how, and why. What, being the content itself. How, being the means through which the content is communicated (i.e. photo, video, article, in-person). And why, being the purpose driving the content in the first place. (I see you, Simon Sinek.)

If we took concerted efforts to think through what content we share and how we share it, we’d see some interesting patterns. Many companies with strong brands do this. Think of the Nike’s, Gillette’s, and Red Sox of the world. Looping back to the Netflix example, this company has made a business out of content creation AND curation. This is their greatness.

How will you use contention creation and curation to show your greatness?

Wage and Horror in Hollywood

Many independent movies produced in Hollywood incorporate as their own LLC.

Unlike a partnership, the investor in an LLC is liable only for the amount of his or her investment in that company.

Producers incorporate for legal protection, so they’re not personally liable for any loss they might incur along the journey of making their movies. However, their crews may not be not afforded a comparable degree of security.

How so?

Most crew members are 1099-ers, or contractors. While union crew members benefit from negotiated labor conditions which include pay rates, working hours, healthcare, retirement and the like, non-union crew are at the mercy of the producer and their budget. In general, non-union crew terms are negotiable, which could result in unfair pay and working conditions.

Hollywood is an interesting case study in the union conversation. Outside of Hollywood, where the gig economy is alive and well, unions are less common and declining in membership. Why have unions continued to reign supreme in Tinseltown, while in other industries – arguably largely impacted by technological innovations that led to companies like Uber, Airbnb, and Postmates – do not have an organized labor protocol?

Maybe they should. Wage and hour negotiations, not to mention healthcare benefits, continue to be major points of contention in the employee versus contractor debate (again, think Uber) beyond Hollywood’s vices. The Freelancers Union ( which represents 57 million freelancers, is a contemporary reminder of what organized labor initially sought to accomplish for its workers: fair and safe working conditions.

Which brings us back to the original topic: are crew members – non-union or otherwise – afforded the rights and protection they deserve? While union membership has come to be used as a badge of honor or unofficial reference check, should that continue to be the case as the labor landscape evolves to include a workforce composed of a freelancer majority worldwide? Is Hollywood the exception? Perhaps it’s an ethical question regarding labor exploitation rather than an economic one.

What Do Hollywood & Uber Have In Common?

We are familiar with the ongoing court battle driven (pun intended) by Uber’s classification of the majority of its workforce as independent contractors.

Uber, and the ridesharing industry in general, isn’t the only workplace where the rights of freelancers are a hot topic.

Hollywood, for example, faces a similar scope of labor challenges related to protecting workers from exploitation of their employers.

Hollywood freelancers, however, benefit from a history of unionization efforts that afford them the ability to organize as a group when feelings of exploitation reach a tipping point.

Currently, the Writers Guild of America (WGA) is taking action against talent agents regarding conflicts of interest in packaging and producing scripts written by the writers.

Uber drivers, unfortunately, are not afforded the same rights.

Based on the court ruling in the 9th circuit appeals court back in September, thousands of drivers are essentially barred from suing as a group for better pay and benefits. This is because Independent contractors who communicate with one another and attempt to form a union often run afoul of antitrust laws that are meant to regulate price-fixing.

However, some municipalities have already gone ahead with granting independent contractors the right to unionize despite the Taft-Hardly Act’s (another legacy labor law) explicit exclusion of independent contractors. The Seattle City Council passed a bill in December 2015 allowing Uber and Lyft drivers to form a union (a bill certain to face legal action, however).

These issues date back to the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), passed as part of Roosevelt’s New Deal in 1933, where the definition of employees versus independent contractors was not explicit, and left to the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), an independent governmental agency tasked with investigating unfair labor practices, to decide.

Today, 86 years later, we’re still trying to clarify the same definitions, this time in a new era of workplace quandry triggered by the gig economy.

What does the future of employment look like for freelancers, especially with such inconsistency across industries in this gig economy? Only time – and court rulings – will tell.